Wed. Mar 29th, 2023

ZONE F Relation of Nature

Exhibition of Biodiversity

     Biodiversity is a result of evolutionary changes of organisms including evolutions or changes of environment.


Biodiversity means

1.Species Diversity: there are various organisms in the area such as plants, animals and microorganisms.

2.Genetic Diversity: organisms have different genetic components then it made adaptation in various environments.

3.Ecosystem Diversity: in different parts of the world, there are many different Ecosystems and complexities.

     The importance of biodiversity is also important to humans directly and indirectly especially as it is an important natural resource and the 4th factor in economic and social development.


Humans grow up by eating rice.


     There are many different kinds of this type such as Jasmine rice, Germinated Sang Yod brown GI rice, Brown jasmine rice and a lot more.

     Glutinous rice – There are many different kinds of such like Black glutinous rice, Leum Phua glutinous rice cider, and Purple rice (or Black rice)

Why are there so many species of rice ?

     Because each species of rice has different heredity, because there is a gene that controls the attributes of microcosms which is a part of its DNA.


Biodiversity in Ecosystem

     Thailand is located in a bio diverse hotspot area. In addition, Biodiversity Hotspot also means high biodiversity in critical areas from factors that affect against living in such areas often in tropical regions of the world.  


Ecosystem Diversity

     An ecosystem consists of biotic components and abiotic components, and both of these are related. There are also different interrelationships that cause the diversity of the ecosystem such as Terrestrial ecosystems and Aquatic ecosystem. These 2 have other sub-ecosystems such as forest ecosystems, freshwater ecosystems, marine ecosystems, etc.


     Most of the forest areas in the northeast consist of Soil ecosystems primarily. Soil ecosystem mostly consists of wetland, such as deciduous dipterocarp forest, mixed deciduous forest, dry evergreen forest and an area of coniferous forest. Factors that cause different forest communities are light, temperature, humidity in the atmosphere, rainfall, terrain, soil condition and different species of organisms.


Fairy Shrimp

     Fairy shrimp is like brine shrimp. They are important to the food chain because they are food for fish, crab, shrimp and aquatic insect species. Fairy shrimp eats zooplankton, protozoa, organic matter, and phytoplankton. Fairy shrimp lives in small and clean freshwater. If there is contaminated water, fairy shrimp will die. They are an indicator of the integrity of the ecosystem as well.


Biological interaction between important organisms are

1)Predation       One is a predator and another is prey. Prey is killed and eaten.

2)Parasitism       A parasite lives in a host. Parasite gets benefits but the host doesn’t.


3)Mutualism       2 types of organisms are mutually beneficial, live together and can’t live separately.

4)Commensalism   One organism gets benefits but the other neither loses nor benefits.

5)Protocooperation 2 types of organisms are mutually beneficial and can live separately.

6)Competition     2 types of organisms need the same factor to live but the factor isn’t enough that they have to struggle or fight. 



     Khong is a basket weaved by bamboo. There is a narrow mouth like a pot and is used to put  frog, fish, crab and shrimp.

Tum Kob

     Made of weaved bamboo, there is only a lateral cavity that frogs can use to get inside.

Sai Dug Pla

     A kind fish trap – it is mostly used for catching small fish. And it is used in deep water or  flowing water. 



      Wetland is the boundary between land and water. This kind of forest is a plant community– occurs in low plain areas by the riverside, pan and overbank flow during wet season for several months and it becomes abundant.

      Wetland is important to Thai people who live in northeast because it’s a source of animal breeding, plant breeding, animal’s refuge, and a source of nutritious plants and herbs.

     It is important for this ecosystem be prevented from sudden flooding, leaching and soil eroding in coastal areas. It’s a filter for straining sediment and agricultural toxins. It can store nutrients, maintain the quality of water and it’s a source of nutrients for plants including animals.


Wetland, Supermarket of Isan-People

     Wetland is a source of important biodiversity. There are many species of plants, native plants that can eat and cook as food in every season. It’s a source of food for animals and it makes subsistence.

     In addition, it’s a source of food for animals like cows, buffalos, and therefore can be called as a supermarket of Isan-people unless some communities have an agreement on finding natural products in forests or catching fish to maintain abundance.


How Important is Bark?

     Why is bark in Deciduous dipterocarp forest rough and has a deep groove?

     It’s because the Deciduous dipterocarp forest needs to adapt to drought and wildfires. Also, the bark being thick and having a deep groove avoids damage to the wood. The deep groove in the wood can retain moisture. Another reason is that insects can live in the bark.


Deciduous Dipterocarp Forest (DDF)

      This type of forest has many names depending on the area they are found. It can be seen in the large Khorat Plateau, the higher elevation plains of the Chao Phraya River basin, the foothills of the Tenasserim Hills and other dry areas of the lower slopes of the Khun Tan, Phi Pan Nam and Phetchabun mountain ranges of the north of the country.

     The general characteristics of this type of forest include the low density of the area featuring big to small trees. The forest floor is covered by grasses or small bamboo. The soil is generally porous mixed with sand and rocks.

     The community often is moderately rich in other small trees, particularly legumes such as Pterocarpus macrocarpus, Sindora siamensis, and Xylia xylocarpa.

     Dominant tree species in this formation exhibit adaptations to fire in the form of thick, corky bark to protect cambium tissues and root crowns, which readily resprout.

Natural Rocks Formations

     They are found in many regions in northeast of Thailand. There are many small plants and usually appear in rainy season. Their seeds are under the ground or stones, and they will grow up after receiving the water in rainy season.

     The characteristics of plants are being small and having short roots.

     Some plants can adjust themselves in lack of soil fertility by eating insects like carnivorous plant.


Carnivorous Plant

     Carnivorous plant, sometimes called insectivorous plant, any plant especially adapted for capturing and digesting insects and other animals by means of ingenious pitfalls and traps.

   The main aim of carnivorous plants is to mobilize amino acids from the proteins of their prey.

          The carnivorous plant habitat is typically low in nitrogen and phosphorus. In this sort of habitat, plants that have alternative strategies for obtaining essential minerals are at a competitive advantage. The capture of insects and other animals thus provides carnivorous plants with a supplemental source of essential nutrients.


Community Forest in Thailand

The forests in Thailand can be divided into 2 types that are

1.Temperate deciduous forestis a temperate forest dominated by trees that lose their leaves each year such as mixed deciduous forest, deciduous dipterocarp forest and grassland forest

2.Evergreen forest  is a forest made up of evergreen trees such as tropical rain forest, dry evergreen forest, hill evergreen forest, coniferous forest, peat swamp forest, savanna, beach forest and mangrove swamp forest.


Mangrove Swamp Forest

      This forest is found in tropical and subtropical tidal areas. Areas where mangals occur include estuaries and marine shorelines.

Plants : Rhizophora apiculata, Rhizophora mucronata, Avicennia alba, Mangrove apple, Portia Tree, etc.


Beach Forest       

     Beach forest spreads on old beaches in the Gulf of Thailand, which appears  from Phetchaburi province to Malaysia.

Plants : Vitex pinnata, Calophyllum inophyllum, Vitex rotundifolia,  Casuarina equisetifolia, Ipomoea pes-caprae,  Spinifex littoreus, Terminalia catappa, etc.


Peat Swamp Forest       

     Peat swamp forest is tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. This forest is found in many regions in South of Thailand and it has high biodiversity.

Plants :  Eugenia  oblata  Roxb., Neesia  malayana  Bakh., Intsia  bijuga  (Colebr.)  Ktze., Polyalthia  laleriflora  (Bl.) King., etc.



     Savanna is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close. It ususally appears after wildfires.

Plants :  Planchonia valida, Acacia catechu (L.F.) Willd., etc.


Deciduous Dipterocarp Forest

      It is found between 50 – 1,000 meters above mean sea level.

Plants :  Dipterocarpus intricatus, Dipterocarpus obtusifolius, Shorea obtusa, Shorea siamensis, etc.  


Mixed Deciduous Forest

      It is found between 50 – 800 meters above mean sea level.

Plants :  Burma padauk, Teak, Afzelia xylocarpa, etc.  


Semi Evergreen Forest

    It is found in 500 meters above mean sea level.

Plants :  Hopea odorata, Cinnamon, Bambuseae, etc.  


Tropical Rain Forest

     It is found between 100 – 800 meters above mean sea level.

Plants :  Cotylelobium lanceolatum and Hopea odorata.


Coniferous Forest

     It is found between 900 – 1,900 meters above mean sea level.

Plants :  Pinus kesiya and Pinus merkusii.


Hill Evergreen Forest

     It is found more than 1,000 meters above mean sea level.

Plants : Moss, Spathoglottis, Fern, etc.